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Honey bee venom contains more than 40 active sub- Chinese texts dating back 2 15 mcg mircette amex birth control pills libido,000 years mention it buy mircette 15mcg without prescription birth control 24, and Hip- stances mircette 15mcg on-line birth control pill 50s, many of which have physiological effects. The Egyptians were said to treat most abundant compound is an anti-inflammatory agent diseases with an ointment made from bees, and Greek called melittin. As an anti-inflammatory, melittin is 100 published a paper on one of the first clinical studies in- times more potent than hydrocortisol. That is why the venom may be helpful in treating inflam- It spread as a type of folk remedy popularized by anecdo- matory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Though clini- mission; adolapin, which is an anti-inflammatory and an cal studies had begun by 2000, most people using the ther- analgesic; and other neurotransmitters like norepinephrine apy were either doing it themselves or with the help of lay and dopamine and seratonin, which figure in depression. Physicians were beginning to use the thera- py but mostly with an injectable form of the venom. One of the most promis- ing uses may be relieving the symptoms of treatment-re- Benefits sistant MS. More than 1,300 people with MS have sent The American Apitherapy Society says it has anec- testimonials to the American Apitherapy Society in sup- dotal evidence showing bee venom is effective in the port of the treatment saying the therapy helped relieve fa- treatment of: tigue and muscle spasm, as well as to restore stability. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 109 Most people receiving the therapy do it themselves or with the help of a lay practitioner. The cost of learning KEY TERMS the therapy and the cost for the bees is generally not cov-. The therapy may be covered, howev- Cardiovascular—Refers to the heart and blood er, if prescribed and administered by a physician who vessels as a unified system. Multiple sclerosis—A chronic, debilitating disease To receive treatment, a bee is taken from a jar or hive that affects the central nervous system causing a with a pair of tweezers and held on the body part to be loss of muscular coordination, speech defects, stung. Treat- dons, the fibrous connective tissue that attaches ing a more chronic problem like arthritis can take several muscle to bone. Those who have used it say the therapy must happen two to three times per week for six months in order to start working. Side effects On average, doctors who use the therapy delivered Pain, itching, and swelling are common at the injec- injections one to two times per week. Patients should also be cautioned that jections varied widely, from one to 30 per session, de- severe anaphylactic allergic reactions can lead to respira- pending on the ailment being treated. Instead, they obtain venom in an injectable form and in- It seems, however, that major complications are rare. September 1999, it was reported in Patient Care magazine Obviously, the more stings or injections to be adminis- that Christopher M. Kim, director of the Monmouth Pain tered, the more time the therapy is going to take per session. Institute in Red Bank, New Jersey, says he has given more than 34,000 injections to 174 patients over the past 15 years Preparations and has yet to see any major complications. The most Before the therapy is begun, a doctor will inject the common side effect reported by his patients is itching, re- patient with a weak form of the venom to test for allergic ported by 80% of his patients after the first session. The doctor will have a syringe of epinephrine sessions, however, only 40% still experienced itching. Lay practitioners and beekeepers who deliver live stings test patients with an initial sting to the knee or Research & general acceptance forearm and observe the patient to see if they are aller- gic. The test sting should only be administered if the Due to a growing body of anecdotal evidence to sup- practitioner has a bee-sting kit containing epinephrine port the use of BVT, formal clinical studies were nearby. Up to 2% of the population Sclerosis Society has begun funding a study on apithera- may be allergic to insect venom. Bellanti, who is overseeing the study, has already changed his view of the therapy. The appendix has no the therapy on animals and have found that bee venom known function in the body, but it can become diseased. A study was de- Appendicitis is a medical emergency, and if it is left un- scribed in RN in which researchers induced a condition treated, the appendix may rupture and cause a potentially similar to rheumatoid arthritis in rats and found that fatal infection. Harvard Medical School professor John Mills, who Description works with arthritis patients, told Country Journal that he Appendicitis is the one of the most common abdomi- has seen patients achieve short-term relief through the nal emergencies found in the United States. It is rare in the elderly lieves the same response could be achieved through drug and in children under the age of two. Since many different conditions can cause abdomi- trials, and anecdotal evidence suggest BVT may have nal pain, an accurate diagnosis of appendicitis can be dif- therapeutic effects, until clinical trials on humans are ficult. Other conditions can have symptoms similar to ap- completed, there is no way to know if the treatment pendicitis, especially in women.

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The progressive medialisation of the humeral head is followed in time by a reduction in the acromio-humeral dis- tance (Fig cheap mircette 15 mcg free shipping birth control pill brands. It is characterised by destruction of the humeral head which loses its sphericity mircette 15mcg line birth control pills 60s. Wear occurs at the level of the anatomical neck producing a characteristic notch which progressively wears away at the circum- 176 15 Classifications for rheumatoid arthritis ference of the neck to give it a ªchampagne corkº appearance trusted 15mcg mircette birth control for women dickies. This very aggressive form of rheumatoid arthritis destroys the glenoid si- multaneously. Some of the cases did not display a loss of joint space due to the articular incongruity (Fig. The reproducibility has been tested several times, with the general result that different ob- servers uniformly graded 90% of films of rheumatoid arthritis. When new bone forma- tion is not predominant it is possible the evaluate extremity joints in other chronic inflammatory conditions, such as ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthropathy, which are known to present many common features in joint pathology. However, the system is not suited for evalu- ating juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or arthropathies in childhood with abnormal epiphyseal development. Osteoarthritis may cause abnormali- ties comparable with grade I, or even more severe grades, particularly in the interphalangeal joint of the finger (erosive, osteoarthritis), in the hips and in the knees. Osteoarthrosis is usually differential diagnosis without considering the clinical and laboratory data, as well as the re- sult of radiography of the spine and sacroiliac joints. It should not be considered as a general measure of the sever- ity of the disease: n Grade 0. Abnormalities not related to arthritis, such as marginal bone deposition, may be present. One or more of the following lesions are present: periarticular soft tissue swelling, periarticular osteoporosis and slight joint space narrowing. When possible, use for comparison a normal contralateral or a previous film of the joint in the same pa- tient. This stage represents an early uncertain phase of arthritis or a later phase a 15. Dislocation and bony ankylosis, being late and secondary, should not be considered in the grading; if present, the grading should be made according to the concomitant bone destruction or deformation. There may sometimes, especially in the erosive phase of arthritis, be some disparity between the degree of erosion and the narrowing of the joint space, because loosening of joint ligaments and the presence of excess joint fluid may cause widening of the joint space. If so, the degree of erosion should be the decisive factor when using the pres- ent grading system. In diagnostic radiology for numerical evaluation of arthritis and for recording of spontaneous variations of the disease. In epidemiology of arthritis for exact recording of lesions in individ- ual joints. A number of systems exist to describe osteomyelitis or infection around a total joint, but none are universally accepted. The ideal system will allow for stratification of the disease, improve decision making, and facilitate out- come reporting that is suitable for meaningful comparison. To our knowledge, a comprehensive classification system for septic arthritis of the shoulder, as such, does not exist at this time. Clearly, all three of these factors must be considered when assessing treatment results and efficacy of treatment alternatives. In this system, the infectious process is staged using four anatomic types, three host physiologic classes, and two clinical settings. Isolated glenohumeral sepsis (type II) occurs when the purulent material is confined within the capsule. Anatomic type III ex- ists when there is involvement of the joint and surrounding soft tissue, such as deep wound infection or septic bursitis, along with the joint sep- sis. When there is osteomyelitis contiguous with a joint infection, it is classified as type IV.

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These critics of the presence of at least six of the following symptoms of ADHD diagnosis feel that medicating a child does not inattention buy cheap mircette 15 mcg online birth control pills 1974, or six or more symptoms of hyperactivity address the true underlying problem cheap mircette 15 mcg without a prescription birth control for women ltd. However cheap 15 mcg mircette otc birth control for women 0n, it ap- pears that heredity plays a major role in the development • does not appear to listen when spoken to of ADHD. Children with an ADHD parent or sibling are • does not follow through on instructions and does not more likely to develop the disorder. Before birth, ADHD finish tasks children may have been exposed to poor maternal nutri- tion, viral infections, or maternal substance abuse. In • has difficulty organizing tasks and activities early childhood, exposure to lead or other toxins can • avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental cause ADHD-like symptoms. Traumatic brain injury or effort (like homework) neurological disorders also may trigger ADHD symp- toms. Although the exact cause of ADHD is not known, • is easily distracted an imbalance of certain neurotransmitters (the chemicals • is forgetful in daily activities in the brain that send messages between nerve cells) is Hyperactivity believed to be the mechanism behind ADHD symptoms. A pediatrician also can provide a referral to a psychologist or pediatric specialist • has difficulty playing quietly for ADHD assessment. Parents should check with their • is constantly on the move insurance plans to see if these services are covered. Children who meet the symptom crite- inforce good behavior as well as task completion and can ria for inattention, but not for hyperactivity/impulsivity are be used both in the classroom and at home. A tangible diagnosed with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reward such as a sticker may be given to the child every predominantly inattentive type, commonly called ADD. A chart system may be used to display the stick- they have mainly this subtype of the disorder. When a certain number of stickers are collected, the child may Diagnosis trade them in for a bigger reward such as a trip to the zoo The first step in determining if a child has ADHD is or a day at the beach. The reward system stays in place to consult with a pediatrician, a doctor who treats chil- until the good behavior becomes ingrained. The doctor also should the child to recognize the connection between thoughts perform a comprehensive physical examination to rule and behavior, and to change behavior by changing nega- out any organic causes of ADHD symptoms, such as an tive thinking patterns. Individual psychotherapy can help ADHD children If no organic problem can be found, a psychologist, psy- build self-esteem, give them a place to discuss their worries chiatrist, neurologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist and anxieties, and help them gain insight into their behavior typically is consulted to perform a comprehensive ADHD as- and feelings. A complete medical, family, social, psychiatric, and ing family members develop coping skills and work educational history is compiled from existing medical and through feelings of guilt or anger they may be experiencing. ADHD children perform better within a familiar, Interviews also may be conducted with the child, depending consistent, and structured routine with positive reinforce- on his or her age. Along with these interviews, several clinical ments for good behavior and real consequences for bad. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Achenbach Child Communication between parents and teachers is espe- Behavior Rating Scales. In addition, the Wender Utah Rating Scale has been adapted for use in diagnosing ADHD in adults. Although there is a lack of controlled studies to prove It is important to note that mental disorders such as their efficacy, proponents report that they are successful depression and anxiety disorder can cause symptoms in controlling symptoms in some ADHD patients. A complete and comprehensive psychi- of the more popular alternative treatments are listed. Based in part on the Feingold food al- drugs include persistent dry mouth, sedation, disorien- lergy diet, dietary therapy focuses on a nutritional plan tation, and irregular heartbeat (particularly with de- that is high in protein and complex carbohydrates and sipramine). Other medications prescribed for ADHD free of white sugar and salicylate-containing foods therapy include buproprion (Wellbutrin), an antidepres- such as strawberries, tomatoes, and grapes. Herbal therapy uses a variety of natural mazepine (Tegretol, Atretol), an anticonvulsant drug. Ginkgo Clonidine (Catapres), a medication for high blood pres- (Gingko biloba) is used for memory and mental sharp- sure, also has been used to control aggression and hyper- ness and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) extract is activity in some ADHD children, although it should not used for calming. For example, will change with age and maturation, so ADHD symp- it is known that gingko may affect blood coagulation, toms should be monitored closely and prescriptions ad- but controlled studies have not yet evaluated the risk of justed accordingly. In mid-2003, the first new drug for treating ADHD • Vitamin and mineral supplements. Called atomoxetine mineral supplements that are thought to be effective by (Strattera), it was planned to offer several advantages some alternative practitioners include calcium, zinc, over standard stimulants.

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Skin reactions include • plant pollens the raised buy generic mircette 15 mcg online birth control controversy, reddened buy 15mcg mircette birth control sugar pills, and itchy patches called hives mircette 15mcg lowest price birth control for women mohawk. A deeper and more extensive skin reaction, involving more • animal fur and dander extensive fluid collection, is called angioedema. Ana- • body parts from house mites (microscopic creatures phylaxis, another reaction, is marked by difficulty found in all houses) breathing, blood pressure drop, widespread tissue GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 55 swelling, heart rhythm abnormalities, lightheadedness, • Khellin (Ammi visnaga) has bronchodilator activity. Diagnosis • Traditional Chinese medicine treats allergic rhinitis Allergies can often be diagnosed by a careful med- with various species. Patent combination medicines ical history, matching the onset of symptoms to the ex- are: Bu Zhong Yi Qi Wan (Tonify the Middle and Aug- posure to possible allergens. Allergy tests can be used to ment the Qi) and Yu Ping Feng San (Jade Windscreen) identify potential allergens. These tests usually begin are used for preventing allergies, and Bi Yan Pian with prick tests or patch tests, which expose the skin to (Rhinitis Infusion) is often prescribed for syptoms af- small amounts of allergen to observe the response. RAST testing is • The homeopathic remedies Rhus toxicodendron, Apis a blood test that measures the level of reactive antibodies mellifica, and Nux vomica have decongestant activities. Food allergen • Vitamins A and E are antioxidants and help to pro- provocation tests require abstinence from the suspect al- mote normal functioning of the immune system. Allergic rhinitis • Acupuncture has been shown to be as effective as anti- histamine drugs in treating allergic rhinitis. It is also The following can help to relieve the symptoms of used to help prevent allergic reactions by strengthening airborne allergies: the immune system. A variety of herbal remedies, either applied topical- • Grape (Vitis vinifera) seed extract has antihistamine ly or taken internally, can assist in the treatment of con- and anti-inflammatory properties. A cream or wash containing calendula (Calendula anti-inflammatory activity and is proven effective in treat- officinalis), a natural antiseptic and anti-inflammatory ing allergies. Ephedra should not be used for prolonged have been effective in treating atopic dermatitis. The fol- periods of time, as it can raise blood pressure, cause rapid lowing are homeopathic remedies to be taken internally: heartbeat, and interfere with adrenal gland function. Can be taken as a tea or ter with hot applications and for poison ivy, oak, or 100–300 mg in capsule form. It is taken in combination with • Croton (Croton tiglium) oil for poison ivy, oak, or other herbs. Food allergies • Echinacea (Echinacea species) may have anti- inflam- Food allergy may be managed by oral desensitiza- matory activity and boost the immune system. Children with allergy to milk, eggs, fish, or apples 56 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 who followed an oral desensitization procedure devel- Immunotherapy oped resistance to the allergenic food. Oral desensitiza- Immunotherapy, also known as desensitization or al- tion exposes the patient to allergens in controlled, but in- lergy shots, alters the balance of antibody types in the creasing, doses. Injections involve gradually increasing amounts of allergenic food during the study, were still sensitive. Full benefits may take up to several years to Allopathic treatment achieve and are not seen at all in about one in five pa- tients. Individuals receiving all shots will be monitored A large number of prescription and over-the-counter closely following each shot because of the small risk of drugs are available for treatment of immediate hypersen- anaphylaxis, a condition that can result in difficulty sitivity reactions. Most of these drugs work by decreas- breathing and a sharp drop in blood pressure. Other drugs counteract the effects of histamine by stimulating Possible future treatments other systems or reducing immune responses in general. Antihistamines block the hista- body called omalizumab might be effective in treating mine receptors on nasal tissue, decreasing the effect of seasonal allergies and preventing related asthma. They may be used after blocking immunoglobulin E (IgE), an antibody that is symptoms appear, though they seem to prove more ef- found in excessive amounts in those with hay fever, the fective when used preventively. Decongestants constrict blood medicines will likely accompany its ultimate release. De- Treatment of contact dermatitis congestants are stimulants and may cause increased Calamine lotion applied to affected skin can reduce ir- heart rate and blood pressure, headaches, and agitation. Topical corticosteroid creams are more Use of nasal sprays for longer than several days can effective, though overuse may lead to dry and scaly skin.

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